Vegetation Ecology: Objectives and Methods

Vegetation Ecology: Objectives and Methods
In the study of vegetation ecology, the two methods can be applied in an integrated and complementary manner. Vegetation ecology includes the study of vegetation variation with respect to geographic distribution and the study of the development of changes and stability of vegetation in a time context. Ecological study of the woody vegetation, Ecological studies of vegetation can cover large-scale areas, such as the earth, to very small scale, for example vegetation plots measuring 1 m2. Thus, ecological studies produce data on the classification of vegetation and environmental factors causing them in an integrated manner. Vegetation data is collected not only for scientific purposes, but also for various practical purposes, such as the use and conservation of biodiversity and other natural resources. For students, teachers and experts, this book can be an inspiration and foundation for vegetation research.

Ecology of vegetation can be interpreted as a study of vegetation (plant communities). In mainland Europe the study of vegetation is known by various terms, which is basically plant sociology (phytososiology) with the ultimate goal of classifying vegetation into various units. In the United Kingdom and the United States (Anglo-American), studies on vegetation focus on the relationship between vegetation and its environmental factors, and are known as synecology. The integration between mainland European and AngloAmerican concepts and research methods results in an ecological study of vegetation presented in this book.

As one of the highest centers of biodiversity in the world, Indonesia has a variety of plant species and the potential contained therein. However, the destruction of forests and ecosystems caused by human activities has disturbed the preservation of plants, especially those with economic value. To maintain the preservation of these plants, the Botanical Garden Conservation Center made an appropriate conservation strategy by building regional botanical gardens, one of which was the Pucak Botanical Garden. This botanical garden carries the theme "Agro Botanical Garden" which reveals the potential of plants that have economic value, such as medicines, clothing, shelter, food, and various kinds of processed products from plants.

In addition, this book not only discusses scientific names, regional names, tribes, or synonyms of scientific names, but also the characteristics, habitat, uses, and ways of cultivating these plants. Therefore, this book is expected to be useful for researchers, students, governments and the public who want to find out what types of plants have economic value.

Understanding The term ecology was first used by Arnest Haeckel a German biologist in 1866. The word ecology comes from the Greek, namely "Oikos" means house and "Logos" which means science. So, ecology means the science of living things with their homes or the lives of living things. Literally ecology is the study of organisms in their place of life or in other words study the reciprocal relationship between organisms and their environment. Ecology is only exploratory by not experimenting, so it only studies what exists and what happens in nature.

Ecology is a study of living things in their habitats or habitats. From this understanding it can be said that the environment is an important component in it. The environment is a whole factor of life (biotic) and non-living factor (abiotic) which includes two parts: the macro environment and the micro environment. Macro environment is the environment that is quite close to the object that is affected. Micro environment is different from macro environment. For example, the microenvironment under the forest canopy is different from the macroenvironment above it, such as humidity, wind speed, etc. Micro environment under a rock in another desert is also the situation. Both the macro environment and micro environment greatly affect the existence of a species that is an ecological unit.

The components that make up the ecology are: Abiotic (inorganic) environment, consisting of soil, air, sunlight which is a medium for the continuation of life. Biotic (organic) environment consists of plants, animals, humans, who are abiotic inhabitants, divided into: Primary Consumers, called Herbivores, which are grass-eating or foliage-living creatures, such as goats, deer and cows.
Whereas the plant environment is divided into two major groups, first: the macro environment, which is an environment that has a general or regional influence, while the second is a micro environment, the environment that is closest to a plant that potentially affects the organ, so it is an environment where plants must be responsive.
Macro environment may be very different from the micro environment for example is the environment in a forest canopy is very different from the environment outside the canopy, especially in humidity, wind speed, light intensity and temperature of course, the micro environment under a rock in a desert is certainly cooler than outside these rocks.

The wind speed in the microenvironment at one mm from the surface of the leaves certainly has a different wind speed with other organs, so it is said that the microenvironment is an environment in which plants are able to respond. Plant Ecology is in fact impossible to separate from the ecology of animals and microbes because in the same habitat there is always the presence of animals and microbes.

Vegetation in ecology is a term for the whole plant community. Vegetation is a part of life that is composed of plants that occupy an ecosystem. Different types of forests, gardens, grasslands, and tundra are examples of vegetation. Analysis of vegetation is usually done by ecological scientists to study the abundance of species and density of plant growth in a place.

Form of Growth
The form of growth of vegetation can include one or more of the following:
Size: length of life, hardness of wood, or taxon, examples are: herbal herbs, perennials, woody perennials, trees or vines
The degree of freedom of a taxon: an example is a green plant rooted in soil, parasites, saprophite or epipit.
Morphological taxon: for example suculent stems (thick and soft tissue), suculent leaves, rosette shape, prickly, hairy.
Characteristics of taxon leaves: Mid-large, small, stiff, always green, molt during the dry season, needles, or broad-leaf shape.
Phenology, phenology is the time of life cycle events in relation to environmental cues such as dropping leaves, sprouting, flowering.
Location of bad buds (perenating) as determined by Raunkier in 1934.

Vegetation Physiognomy
Physiognomy is the appearance outside of a vegetation, physiognomy can be built from the architect and life form of verifier compilation. Architect vegetation is a form of canopy / canopy of a plant, a vegetation can consist of four or five layers of canopy depending on the type of vegetation.

Analysis of Tobacco Processing Enterprises

Analysis of Tobacco Processing Enterprises
In the world, tobacco is an absorption from a foreign language. The Spanish word "tabaco" is considered to be the origin of the word in the Arawakan language, specifically, in the Taino language in the Caribbean, mentioned referring to the roll of leaves in this plant (according to Bartolome de Las Casas, on Assessing the viability and benefits of tobacco production) or it could also be from the word "tabago", a type Y-shaped pipes to inhale tobacco smoke (according to Oviedo, tobacco leaves are referred to as Cohiba, but Sp. tabaco (also It. tobacco) is commonly used to define medicinal plants since 1410, which comes from the Arabic "tabbaq", which rumored to have existed since the 9th century, as the name of various types of plants, the word tobacco (in English) may have originated in Europe, and eventually applied to similar plants that originated in America.

Tobacco is an agricultural product that is processed from the leaves of plants of the genus Nicotiana. Tobacco can be consumed, used as a pesticide, and in the form of nicotine tartrate can be used as a drug. [1] When consumed, tobacco is generally made into cigarettes, chewing tobacco, and so on. Tobacco has long been used as an entheogen in America. The arrival of Europeans to North America popularized the tobacco trade primarily as a sedative. This popularity led to the economic growth of the southern United States. After the United States Civil War, changes in demand and labor led to the development of the cigarette industry. This new product quickly developed into tobacco companies until there was a scientific controversy in the mid-20th century.

Global tobacco production is concentrated in four countries producing almost 2/3 of the world's tobacco leaf supply (FAO, 2004). The four countries are China, Brazil, India and the United States which produce more than 4 million tons of tobacco leaves each year, approximately 64% of the total world production of 6,340,620 tons. The world's contribution is only around 150,000 tons of tobacco leaves or only around 2.3% of the world's supply.

For the world, tobacco is a traditional export commodity that has been cultivated since 140 years ago, until now it is one of the non-oil and gas foreign exchange earners. Every year the world produces an average of 200 billion cigarettes, consisting of 86-89% of clove cigarettes and 11-14% of white cigarettes. The strength of the kretek cigarette industry lies in the raw material used, 85% is in the form of local tobacco so it does not depend on or is influenced by the situation of the world tobacco trade. Besides producing foreign exchange, cigarette companies also have a positive impact on the running of the national economy, among others, employment and provide a multiplier effect on other economic sectors such as banking, transportation, telecommunications and other real sectors.

World tobacco production almost entirely or around 96% comes from three provinces. The third proportion. The provinces with the most tobacco production were (56%), then (23%) and NTB (17%) and the remainder were produced by DI Yogyakarta, North Sumatra, West Java and Bali. With the details as shown in Figure 1. (Tobacco Farmer Empowerment Research Agency).

Tobacco Products Industry (IHT) still has an important role in driving the national economy, especially in the areas producing tobacco, clove and cigarette production centers, among others in growing related industries / services, providing business opportunities and employment. In an economic crisis situation, IHT is still able to survive and does not terminate the employment (PHK), even this industry is able to make a significant contribution to state revenue. In 2005 the number of IHT (smoking) was 3,217 companies and in 2006 it had reached 3,961 companies or an increase of 23.12%. In the same period cigarette production reached 220.3 billion cigarettes and 218.7 billion cigarettes. The geographical distribution of IHT is mostly (75%) in East Java, Central Java (20%), and the rest is in other areas

Various Benefits of Tobacco
A number of experts in various parts of the world also discovered the "miracle" of tobacco leaves or nicotiana tobacum. These include:

Get well soon from a heart attack
Smokers are stronger and recover faster from heart attacks and strokes. Against restenosis or narrowing of blood vessels that causes blood flow to be limited, such as blood vessels to the heart (cardiovascular disease) or to the brain (stroke). Smokers have a better chance of survival and faster healing.
Other studies say carbon monoxide can reduce heart attacks and strokes. Carbon monoxide is a by-product of tobacco smoke. A report shows that very low levels of carbon monoxide can help victims of heart attacks and strokes.
Carbon monoxide inhibits blood clotting, thereby dissolving dangerous clots in arteries. The researchers focused on the close resemblance between carbon monoxide and nitric oxide which keeps blood vessels dilated and prevents the buildup of white blood cells.

Recently nitric oxide status has been upgraded from ordinary air pollutants to the second most important physiological link internally. Therefore it will not be surprising if carbon monoxide paradoxically can save the lungs from injury due to blocked arteries to the heart (cardiovascular blockage).
The research found the fact, male smokers are less likely to undergo joint replacement surgery than nonsmokers. The reduced risk is because the nicotine in tobacco helps prevent cartilage and joint damage.

Prevent Parkinson's
Another fact published by livescience, to a certain extent, smoking reduces the risk of Parkinson's disease. Specifically, the new research shows a temporal relationship between smoking and a reduced risk of Parkinson's disease. This research says, the protective effect on Parkinson's in smokers decreases after he stops smoking.

How to study effectively according to psychology

How to study effectively according to psychology
Every human being has an obligation to learn. Since we were born, we have been faced with the obligation to learn, since learning to eat, walk, until we grow up we learn in school and also from the surrounding environment. Learning does have a very broad meaning, but the word 'learning' is often identified with the obligations of a school child or student as a student in formal school.

Unfortunately, readability level of recommended textbooks and students academic performance and even though learning has actually been done every day, many people still assume that learning is not fun. They mostly consider learning to be unpleasant. In fact, this assumption will only make learning activities become unpleasant and less effective. Therefore, in this article we will discuss about how to learn effectively according to psychology.

Feel the need to learn
A sense of the need to learn will make us more serious in learning. This seriousness will make us not only learn when we're in the mood, but also learn at any time without feeling heavy. Thus, the knowledge we learn will also be more easily absorbed into our memories. (Also read: Psychological Theory About Mood Disorders in Humans)

Study wherever we like
Choosing a preferred place of study will certainly make us happy and feel comfortable to learn. By choosing a comfortable place, we also help organize our mood to be better so that learning becomes more enjoyable and effective.

Installments lessons little by little
Don't learn too many lessons at one time. It's best if you pay in installments little by little. Therefore, it is better if we learn every day, for example by repeating the lessons we receive on that day. This method is certainly more effective than we learn all the lessons in a short time, usually just before going to school exams. Studying with the 'overnight racing system' will only cause psychological pressure so that we will not be able to absorb knowledge well. (Also read: How Educational Psychology Works)

Share learning time
It's a good idea to create a study schedule and targets to determine when you should be able to master the lesson. By making a schedule and dividing the learning time, your learning activities will become more structured and neat and in accordance with your expectations at the beginning.

Have a discussion
Everyone does have their own learning style. There are people who like to study alone in a quiet place, but there are also people who prefer to learn in groups and rollicking. If you still do not know your learning style, it never hurts to try to discuss with friends to exchange ideas and subject matter. If you feel comfortable and easier to understand the material, then discussing with friends can be an effective way of learning for you.

Look for ways that help concentration
Regarding the previous point, everyone's learning styles are different. If you are a music connoisseur and find it easier to focus with the music, don't hesitate to learn to listen to music. This is usually effective if you are practicing working on lesson questions, not when memorizing a lesson. (Also read: How to Improve Children's Learning Concentration)

Understand, don't just memorize
Teaching and learning systems nowadays are more often focused on memorizing, not on student understanding. In fact, just memorizing lessons will only be effective for examinations or short-term time. In the long run, knowledge that is memorized will only be easy to forget and not leave any benefit.

Tips to Improve Memory
Behavioristic Learning Theory
Share learning time
It's a good idea to create a study schedule and targets to determine when you should be able to master the lesson. By making a schedule and dividing the learning time, your learning activities will become more structured and neat and in accordance with your expectations at the beginning.

Have a discussion
Everyone does have their own learning style. There are people who like to study alone in a quiet place, but there are also people who prefer to learn in groups and rollicking. If you still do not know your learning style, it never hurts to try to discuss with friends to exchange ideas and subject matter. If you feel comfortable and easier to understand the material, then discussing with friends can be an effective way of learning for you.

Look for ways that help concentration
Regarding the previous point, everyone's learning styles are different. If you are a music connoisseur and find it easier to focus with the music, don't hesitate to learn to listen to music. This is usually effective if you are practicing working on lesson questions, not when memorizing a lesson. (Also read: How to Improve Children's Learning Concentration)

Understand, don't just memorize
Teaching and learning systems nowadays are more often focused on memorizing, not on student understanding. In fact, just memorizing lessons will only be effective for examinations or short-term time. In the long run, knowledge that is memorized will only be easy to forget and not leave any benefit.

Tips to Improve Memory
Behavioristic Learning Theory
Therefore, it would be nice if we understand the knowledge we are learning instead of just memorizing it. By understanding this knowledge, that knowledge will remain in our memories and we can bring that knowledge back to memory when needed.

Don't be shy about asking
Do not hesitate to ask if we do not understand something or experience a deadlock in a science. We understand because we do not know about this knowledge, so there is no reason to be embarrassed to ask for fear of being labeled a fool.

Try and continue even if you fail
Failure is part of learning. There is no true learning if without going through failure. In fact, failure is considered as an effective way of learning because we experience the causes of failure ourselves and remember it as learning to no longer repeat it.
If you experience failure, try again using another method of work until you can successfully do what you want. This is a truly effective way of learning that can produce good results.

Love the subjects
Liking the subject or thing that is being studied will greatly affect the effectiveness and success of our learning. With our love of the lesson or knowledge, we will be more eager to receive and absorb the knowledge gained. This is different if we feel like not learning the subject. Not liking a lesson will only make us feel compelled to learn and of course the results of learning like this will not be optimal. (Also read: Types of Learning Theories in Psychology)

Take advantage of the facilities available
In this day and age, learning facilities available are not only in the form of textbooks or collection of questions from schools. Now, we can learn from the internet, videos, and television that provide educational shows. Take advantage of all these facilities as a support for your learning process. Usually, the subject matter provided on the internet, videos or educational shows has been packaged as interesting and as simple as possible so that we will be more interested and digest the material provided.

Make a review or map material
Try to map the material being studied, for example by making a concept map or overview of all the material being studied. Making a review will also make it easier for us to understand the essence of the knowledge being studied. In addition to the material we make, it can be a simpler study material, while making a review or concept map, we also read and write the material we learn. This activity will certainly support our way of learning to be more effective. (Also read: Learning Methods in Educational Psychology)

Make a conclusion
Try to draw conclusions from the material being studied. This will show what are the outputs of our learning activities and we can read these conclusions repeatedly to make science more embedded in our brains.

Try practice questions
Doing exercises or problem solving exercises according to the material being studied will help us measure the extent of our understanding of the material. Thus, we can judge where we have to improve learning and where we have mastered it.

External and Internal Factors in Monetary Zones

External and Internal Factors in Monetary Zones
External Factors
The World Economy has a relatively high sensitivity to global economic conditions. Especially the policy changes centered on the two major economies of the world including the United States and China. Volatility analysis of the monetary zone exchange rate, The trade war between the United States and China affects the movement of capital and liquid cash between the two countries and countries that have strong trade relations between the countries. A trade war can be understood simply as an increase in tax rates on goods from certain countries.
The increase in taxes causes the income of companies and the country to be eroded, which in turn causes the business will not be able to develop and expand.
So, what does that have to do with rupiah? World exports are highly dependent on the demand of the world's biggest trading partner countries including the United States and China.
Since the US-China trade war, the two countries have reduced their demand for world export products and commodities. That also led to the World trade balance in 2018, including one of the worst performances since the administration. Actually this can be anticipated in advance, by passing the diversification of export destinations.
The tension of this trade war caused volatile world currency exchange rates including rupiah. Moreover, President Donald Trump's economic policies are difficult to guess by the market, so that each market participant is also very careful.

The decision of the US and China to postpone the trade war for three months, starting from December 2018, to renegotiate trade relations between the two countries, providing fresh air to the financial markets. This US decision is inseparable from the outlook for the American economy in Q3 and 4, which showed a significant weakening. Therefore, the American Central Bank has postponed raising the benchmark open rate.
The decision of the American Central Bank caused market participants to move their money to countries that offer more attractive interest rates. This short-term investment capital flow movement is called Hot Money or hot money.
This Hot Money movement caused the rupiah to collapse massively in 2018, because market participants left the world financial markets. But they are also the ones who caused a return to the World at the end of 2018, thus causing a strengthening of the rupiah.

Internal factors
The World Economy is fundamentally stable, it is usually seen from the low inflation rate of 3.10 percent in quarter 4, 2018. Year-to-year (YoY) economic growth is relatively stable above 5.15 percent. Therefore, the macro outlook is quite satisfying.
In addition, the World Bank's monetary policy decided to raise the benchmark interest rate by 25 basis points (bps) to 5.75 percent. This step by the World Bank has only seen its impact after 2 months. This is an ordinary event, because a policy needs time to be seen its influence. In economic theory this is called time lags.

This relatively high interest rate causes the world monetary market to be quite attractive to market participants. Therefore, they re-entered the world financial market at the end of early November 2018. This is what caused the rupiah to strengthen.
The current macroeconomic conditions are still quite good when compared to 1998 and 2008, but the government must remain vigilant. One thing to look out for is the current account deficit. Until the end of the second quarter of 2018, the World current account recorded a deficit of USD8.03 billion, greater than the beginning of the year which was US $ 5.76 billion. The downturn in the rupiah against the US dollar in 1998, 2008 and 2018 cannot be compared to one another. This is because the factors that influence it differ in each period.

Fluctuations in the middle of 1997-1998 were influenced by the exchange rate regime change from controlled floating to free floating. Political conditions that were filled with waves of protest against the president at that time also had a strong influence. The economic conditions of other countries that are World partners are factors that have influenced the mid-2008-2009 fluctuations. The financial crisis in the US that spreads to the world is also felt by the World. But the good macro fundamentals at home at that time showed the World was not too dependent on the US. When he was the governor of BI, Boediono once said that the World in 2008 was in a "blessings in disguise" condition because it was not too connected to the financial system at the center of the world economy such as the US.
While the current fluctuations are influenced by economic war sentiment and other countries' monetary policies. In addition, although macro fundamentals are not too bad, conditions such as foreign exchange reserves which are increasingly eroded and the growing current account deficit should be watched out for. Rupiah exchange rate that has not been controlled and political conditions ahead of the election become a reality that must be faced.

Perception of the Use of Technology in E-Commerce

Perception of the Use of Technology in E-Commerce
Information technology is a set of tools that can help to do and complete work or tasks related to information (Haag and Keen, 2019 on Comparison of Intention to Transact Use E Commerce). In its development, information technology has a major influence on modern organizations in making decisions, so that this causes all the work that exists in these organizations can be completed quickly, accurately, and efficiently (Wardiningsih, 2009). But in line with its development, users also need the existence of more sophisticated information technology innovations. Therefore, the researchers strive to create an innovation in the field of information technology that is currently known as the internet.
According to Sidharta (1996), the internet is a source of information and is seen as a multimedia library that is very complete, extensive, and easy to reach because almost all aspects of community activities are on the internet. The many benefits provided by the internet cause users to use the internet as a medium to make transactions online. Online transactions are trading activities carried out by sellers and buyers who use the internet as a liaison medium. According to Purbo and Wahyudi (2001), the main factor causing the development of online transactions is that all the transactions needed can be done easily and quickly. In addition there are several other supporting factors, namely the first is the number of internet users which is increasing from year to year. This is evidenced by the results of national research conducted by the Indonesian Internet Service Providers Association (APJII) and PusKaKom UI which states that during 2014 showed an increase in internet user growth of 16.2 million users from the previous year, from 71.9 million to 88 , 1 million users
Due to the increasing number of internet users, business people are competing to run their businesses online. Second, increasing people's purchasing power through the internet. This is in accordance with the results of national research by APJII which states that in 2014 online trading transactions that are currently rife have occurred an increase in users by 6% from the previous year, which is 5% to 11%. Third, innovations from information technology that are easier, faster, and cheaper where the internet is not only accessible through computers, but now can be done via mobile phones (cellphones). By using mobile phones, users can access the internet for 24 hours and wherever they are. The benefits gained from online transaction activities are numerous, both for business people and consumers. However, the many benefits gained in conducting online transaction activities have not been able to attract the attention of internet users as a whole even though from year to year the people who carry out these transactions have increased gradually. So it is important for business people to learn about the factors that influence consumer interest in using online transactions. There are several theories that discuss the factors that influence individual interest in behavior. One of them is the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) introduced by Davis (1989) in his research on the acceptance of information technology on computer use (Rahmawati, 2010). TAM is a theoretical model that is used to explain the factors that influence individual acceptance of the use of technology-based information systems.
The main construct contained in the TAM is the perception of benefits and the perception of ease in which both constructs can influence consumer interest in using online-based transactions. This is supported by Jogiyanto (2007) who explains that individuals will be interested in using a technology if they feel that the technology system is useful and easy to use. Many previous researchers have made Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) the basis for their research. Yaobin and Tao (2007) conducted a study of consumers' initial trust in online stores in China. The results showed that trust and perceived benefits have a positive influence on buying interest in online stores. Sin et. al. (2012) conducted a study of the factors that influence consumer interest in making online purchases through social media websites in Malaysia by modifying the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Besides the main variable which is TAM, Sin et. al. (2012) add external variables as factors that influence consumer interest in online transactions, namely subjective norms. The results showed that all variables in the study of Sin et. al. (2012) has a positive effect on consumer interest to transact online. Meskaran et. al. (2013) conducted a study of the effect of trust and security perceptions on online purchasing interest

Malaysia. The results of this study imply that there is a significant and positive relationship between security perceptions and other variables in the study with interest in using online transactions. Based on this phenomenon, the researcher wants to examine what factors can influence the interest in using online transactions. This research is based on research conducted by Yaobin and Tao (2007), Sin et. al. (2012), and Meskaran et. al. (2013). Researchers want to test whether the results of the study will be the same if using different samples. Based on research conducted by Yaobin and Tao (2007), researchers took one variable that could affect the interest in using online transactions, namely the trust variable. For research conducted by Sin et. al. (2012), researchers took two variables that can influence the interest in using online transactions, namely the variable usefulness perception and ease to use which is the main construct of one of the behavioral information systems theories known as the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) ), while for research conducted by Meskaran, et al (2013), researchers took one variable that could influence the interest in using online transactions, namely the variable of security perception. The researcher will combine the variables in the three studies. Based on the background that has been stated, then the problem can be formulated researched, namely: 1) Does trust have a positive effect on the interest in using online transactions ?, 2) Does the perception of benefits have a positive effect on the interest in using online transactions? on the interest in using online transactions ?, 4) Does the perception of security have a positive effect on the interest in using online transactions ?.

Accounting Information Systems Based on Information Technology in its development has a very important role in the advancement of accounting information systems because everything related to information is easily obtained (Sunarta and Astuti, 2005). According to Martin, Brown, De Hayes, Hoffer, and Perkins (2005) in Suyanto (2005: 8), information technology is a combination of computer technology consisting of hardware and software with communication technology that is useful for processing, storing, and making data as useful information, while Wardiana (2002) argues that information technology is a technology that functions to process data both process, obtain, store data by all means in order to produce quality information and can effectively and efficiently be used for decision making by individuals, governments and business people. The role of technology in accounting information systems is very important because the processing and processing of data into information can be obtained quickly, precisely, effectively, and efficiently which is useful for decision making.

Technology-based Accounting Information System is a system that can process, process, and disseminate information relating to accounting which can be done more quickly and economically (Artha, 2011), whereas according to Dewi (2015), a technology-based accounting information system is a system which is operated by using technology as a basis for producing information that is useful for decision making of various interested parties. The sophistication of information systems and technology also affects the business world, one of which is in online transaction activities that are currently being rife. Behavioral Information System Model Theory According to Jogiyanto (2007), behavioral information system is a system that can explain the behavioral factors in an individual towards their relationship with the information system concerned. This study aims to examine the behavioral factors of individuals that can influence consumer interest in using online transactions. In this case, the factors under study are trust, perceived usefulness, perceived convenience, and perceived security. These factors are examined in order to support and strengthen empirical evidence from previous studies regarding their effects on the interest in using online transactions.

Some of the variables in this study are based on behavior information system theory, the modified Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The variables adopted from TAM are perceived usefulness and perceived convenience. Whereas the trust and security perception variables are used as additional constructs. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is a behavioral theory model developed by Davis in 1989. The purpose of TAM is to provide a basic framework for observing and tracing the influence of external factors on behavioral interest. This model can explain several factors that can influence an individual's acceptance of an information technology system. TAM is an adaptation of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) developed by Fishbein and Ajzen in 1975. In its development, TAM added two constructs to the TRA model, namely the perception of benefits and the perception of ease. The TAM theory explains that an individual's behavioral interest is influenced by his attitude towards the acceptance of a product which then influenced by the perceived benefits and ease of use of the product concerned.

Conceptual Framework for Research The conceptual framework in this study is an amalgamation of several variables in the three previous studies that tested the initial trust of consumers in online stores in China (Yaobin and Tao, 2007), factors that influence consumer interest in making online purchases through websites social media in Malaysia (Sin et al., 2012), and factors that influence consumer interest in making online purchases through social media websites in Malaysia (Meskaran et. al., 2013). Researchers combine several independent variables that are significantly related to the dependent variable based on the three previous studies. The researcher examines the influence of trust, perceived usefulness, perceived convenience, and perceived security against the interest in using online transactions

Fiscal Policy: Definition, Objectives, Types and Components

Fiscal Policy: Definition, Objectives, Types and Components
What is Fiscal and Fiscal Policy?
Fiscal is used to explain the form of state revenue collected from the community and is fiscal policy and economic growth and considered by the government as income then used as expenditures with programs to produce achievement of national income, production and economy and is used as a balance tool in the economy.
while for fiscal policy itself is one of the factors that shape the country's economic direction. The government uses fiscal policy to influence the economy by adjusting income and expenditure levels.

Fiscal policy is based on the theories of the British economist John Maynard Keynes, who states that an increase or decrease in income (tax) and the level of expenditure affect inflation, employment and the flow of money through a country's economic system.
The economic success of a country is usually measured by several factors, one of which includes gross domestic product (GDP), which is the value of goods and services produced by a country in a year. Another factor is aggregate demand, which is the amount of goods and services produced by a country purchased at a certain price point.
If the aggregate demand curve states that at a lower price level, more goods and services are produced. Fiscal policy influences these measurements, the aim being to increase GDP and aggregate demand in a sustainable manner.

3 Main Purpose of Fiscal Policy
The government is responsible for making laws and programs to keep every citizen in good economic condition. Fiscal policy describes the actions taken by the government to influence the economy through changes in spending and taxation. The policies made usually aim to achieve economic goals such as good economic growth, high employment and stable prices.

1. Economic Growth
Achieving high levels of economic growth is one of the main objectives of fiscal policy. When the economy is growing fast, businesses tend to develop and people tend to get more income. Of course this also increases the overall welfare of the nation.
Reducing taxes is the way the government can encourage economic growth through fiscal policy. When taxes are lower, consumers have more money to spend, which tends to increase investment and business income, which leads to economic growth. Higher government spending can also spur economic growth.

2. Work
Achieving a high level of employment is another general goal of fiscal policy. Unemployed workers tend to have less money to spend than workers with jobs. This tends to hamper economic growth.
Reducing taxes to encourage economic growth and business expansion. Simultaneously, this can encourage recruitment and increase employment.

3. Economic Stability
Another goal of fiscal policy is to stabilize the economy by reducing the impact of fluctuations in the economy. The country's economy tends to follow a pattern of global economic expansion, or "boom," followed by an economic slowdown, or "busts."
The government can use fiscal policy to reduce this risk by increasing spending and reducing taxes. This is to control excessive expansion which can cause undesirable effects such as high inflation by increasing taxes and spending cuts. In essence, the government can try to smooth the trend of boom and bust to achieve a more stable trend of constant economic growth.

Types of Fiscal Policy
There are two main types of fiscal policy: expansive and contractive. The following is the explanation:
Expansive fiscal policy, designed to stimulate the economy, is most often used during times of recession, times of high unemployment or other periods of low business cycles. This policy requires the government to spend more money, reduce taxes, or do both. The aim is to put more money in the hands of consumers so they spend more and stimulate the economy.

Contractional fiscal policy is used to slow economic growth, such as when inflation grows too fast. In contrast to expansive fiscal policy, contractive fiscal policy increases taxes and cuts spending.

Various Components of Fiscal Policy
There are four main components of Fiscal Policy as follows:

1. Taxation Policy
Previously we have discussed in detail about tax policy in determining fiscal policy. The government gets income from direct and indirect taxes. Through its fiscal policy, the government aims to maintain as much progressive tax as possible. Furthermore, taxation decisions are very important for the economy for two reasons:
Tax rates that are higher than usual will reduce people's purchasing power and will cause a decrease in investment and production.
A lower than usual tax rate will make people spend their money and this will cause inflation.
Thus, the government must balance and apply the correct tax rates for the economy.

2. Expense Policy
Government expenditure policies deal with income and capital expenditure. This expenditure is carried out in the fields of development such as education, health, infrastructure, etc. And state expenditures to pay debts, internal and external interest on debts.
Government budgets are the most important instruments that embody government spending policies. The budget is also used to finance deficit, which is to fill the gap between government spending and revenue.

3. Investment and Disinvestment Policies
The optimal level of domestic and foreign investment is needed to maintain economic growth. In recent years, international capital flows or FDI have increased dramatically and have become a tool to integrate the domestic economy with the global economy.

4. Debt / Surplus Management
If the government receives more than what is spent, it is called a surplus. But if the government spends more than income, then that is called a deficit. To finance the deficit, the government must borrow from domestic or foreign sources. Another option that can be taken is printing money to finance deficit

How Does Fiscal Policy Affect the Business World?
The Business World has a direct impact on this policy, both in the form of spending or taxation. Business people must be smart to see investment opportunities from government spending and private investment.
This usually occurs during expansionary fiscal policy, when more money flows from the government and from other sources which results in low taxation. When the balance between price and demand is fulfilled, the business is expected to develop
Contractive fiscal policy can push inflation even worse when the balance is broken and demand and prices fall. Businesses that are usually in a period of development and growth will take steps to save budget and this will certainly make the flow of money for spending less.
Fiscal policy also affects the amount of tax for future generations of individuals and businesses. Government spending which leads to a greater deficit shows that taxation must eventually increase to pay interest. Conversely, when the government runs a surplus, the tax rate must eventually be reduced
Not only in the State, in every business also very carefulness is needed in determining financial flows. To simplify this, you can use proven and trusted accounting software. Accurate online!

Understanding Student Involvement in Teaching and Learning Process

Understanding Student Involvement in Teaching and Learning Process
Student involvement can be interpreted as students playing an active role as participants in the learning process. According to Dimjati and Mudjiono (2020: 56-60 on Students involvement in activities and science), student activity can be driven by the teacher's role. The teacher strives to give students the opportunity to be active, both actively seeking, processing and managing their learning outcomes.
To be able to increase student involvement in the teaching and learning process teachers can do this by; direct involvement of students both individually and in groups; creating opportunities that encourage students to conduct experiments, efforts to include students or give assignments to students to obtain information from sources outside the classroom or school and efforts to involve students in summarizing or summarizing learning messages.
The quality and quantity of student involvement is influenced by 2 factors: internal factors and external factors. Internal factors include physical factors, motivation in learning, interests in given activities, intelligence and so on. While external factors include the teacher, learning material, media, time allocation, facilities and so on.
Student involvement can only be possible if students are given the opportunity to participate or be involved in the learning process. In the teaching and learning process beforehand, students are required to submit to and obey rigid rules and procedures that actually limit creative thinking skills. In learning, more children are told to memorize rather than explore, ask questions or experiment.
Active participation of students is very influential in the process of development of thinking, emotions, and social. Involvement of students in learning, makes children actively involved in the learning process and make decisions. However, there are still learning methods that use learning methods where students become passive, such as assignments, and teachers teach monologically, so they tend to be boring and hinder the development of student activities.
The components that determine student involvement in the teaching and learning process include: students, teachers, material, place, time, and facilities.

The Components of Student Involvement in the teaching and learning process referred to are:
1. Students
Students are the core of the teaching and learning process. This is as stated by Kemp (1997: 4), "students are at the center of the teaching and learning process, so they have to be involved in almost all the phrases of the classroom interaction from planning to evaluation." itself, Brown (1987: 115) emphasizes the importance of attention to student learning motivation. "The foreign language learner who is intrinsically meeting in needs in learning the language will positively motivated to learn. When students are motivated to learn, they usually pay attention, become actively involved in the learning and direct their energies to the learning task. "

2. Teacher
Besides students, an important factor in the teaching and learning process is the teacher. The teacher plays an important role in creating communicative classrooms. Breen and Candlin in Nunan (1989: 87) say that the teacher's role is as a facilitator in a communicative process, acting as a participant, and the third acting as an observer.

3. Material
The material is also one of the determinants of student involvement. The characteristics of good material according to Hutchinsondan Waters are:
Interesting text
The existence of activities or activities that are fun and include students' thinking abilities
Give students the opportunity to use the knowledge and skills they already have
The material is mastered both by students and teachers

4. Place
The classroom is a place where teaching and learning takes place. Class size and number of students will have an impact on the application of different teaching techniques and methods. In terms of encouraging and increasing student involvement, the teacher is tasked with creating a comfortable atmosphere in the classroom.

5. Time
The allocation of time to carry out activities in the teaching and learning process also determines the techniques and methods to be applied by the teacher. According to Burden and Byrd (1999: 23), in relation to the time available, teachers need to do varied activities to achieve learning goals and encourage student motivation. The teacher must act as a good timer to ensure that each student gets the same opportunity to be involved in the learning process.

6. Facilities
Facilities are needed to support teaching and learning in class. In achieving learning objectives, teachers use learning media.
Thus some theories involving students in the teaching and learning process hopefully can be a reference to improve teacher performance by implementing effective and efficient ways that encourage student involvement in the learning process.